【欧宝体育安全吗】中国科学家基因编辑治疗艾滋病 向治愈又迈出一步

本文摘要:The 27-year-old patients prospects were bleak. In May 2016, he found out he had AIDS. Two weeks later, he was told he had acute lymphoblastic leukemia.这位27岁的病人前景黯淡。


The 27-year-old patients prospects were bleak. In May 2016, he found out he had AIDS. Two weeks later, he was told he had acute lymphoblastic leukemia.这位27岁的病人前景黯淡。2016年5月,他发现自己患上艾滋病。两周后,他被告诉患上急性淋巴细胞白血病。

But doctors offered the Chinese citizen a ray of hope: a bone marrow transplant to treat his cancer and an extra experimental treatment to try to rid his system of HIV, according to a new paper published in The New England Journal of Medicine.但根据《新英格兰医学杂志》近期公开发表的一篇论文,医生们给这位中国公民带给了一线希望:通过骨髓移植来化疗他的癌症,并展开另外的实验性化疗,企图清理他体内的艾滋病病毒。This involved using the gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to delete a gene known as CCR5 from bone marrow stem cells taken from a donor, before transplanting them into the patient, Peking University scientists said in the study.参予研究的北京大学科学家说道,化疗手段还包括用于基因编辑工具CRISPR-Cas9从捐赠者的骨髓干细胞中移除一种取名为CCR5的基因,然后将干细胞重制到患者体内。After being edited, the cells -- and the blood cells they produce -- have the ability to resist HIV infection, lead scientist Deng Hongkui told CNN Friday.“经过编辑后,这些细胞——以及它们产生的血液细胞——有能力抵抗艾滋病毒病毒感染,”首席科学家邓宏魁在上周五(9月13日)告诉他美国有线新闻网。People who carry defective copies of CCR5 are highly immune to HIV, because the virus uses a protein made by this gene to gain entry into an infected persons cells. Two men, known as the Berlin patient and the London patient, became the first people in the world to be cured of HIV after receiving bone marrow transplants from donors who had the mutation naturally.装载有再次发生变异的CCR5基因拷贝的人对艾滋病毒具备很高的免疫力,因为艾滋病毒利用这种基因产生的蛋白质转入感染者的细胞。

“柏林患者”和“伦敦患者”在拒绝接受了来自天生装载有这种基因突变的捐赠者的骨髓移植后,沦为世界上首批被医治的艾滋病毒感染者。The patient agreed and the experiment was carried out in the summer of 2017. It was the first time CRISPR-Cas9 was used on a HIV patient. In early 2019, a full 19 months after the treatment was administered, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia was in complete remission and donor cells carrying the ablated CCR5 persisted, the scientists said in the paper.在患者表示同意后,实验于2017年夏天展开。这是基因编辑工具CRISPR-Cas9首次用作艾滋病毒患者。

2019年初,也就是拒绝接受化疗整整19个月后,“急性淋巴细胞白血病完全缓解,装载有经过编辑的CCR5基因的供体细胞持续不存在,”科学家在论文中说道。But there werent enough of them to eradicate the HIV virus in the patients body. After transplantation, only approximately 5% to 8% of the patients bone marrow cells carried the CCR5 edit, according to the researchers. In the future, further improving the efficiency of gene-editing and optimizing the transplantation procedure should accelerate the transition to clinical applications, said Deng.但这还足以歼灭病人体内的艾滋病毒。研究人员说道,重制后,只有约5%到8%的患者骨髓细胞装载这种经过编辑的基因。

邓宏魁说道,“在未来,进一步提高基因编辑的效率和优化重制程序等措施应当不会加快向临床应用于的改变。”But he doesnt see this as a setback.The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of genetically-edited stem cell transplantation for AIDS treatment, said Deng.但他不指出这个化疗是一次告终。“这项研究的主要目的是评估基因编辑干细胞重制化疗艾滋病的安全性和可行性,”邓宏魁说道。

According to Deng, this was a success: the scientists didnt detect any gene editing-related adverse events, even if more long-term in-depth studies are needed for off-target effects and other safety assessments, Deng said.他指出这个试验很顺利:科学家们没找到任何与基因编辑涉及的不当事件,邓宏魁说道,即使“必须更加长年了解的研究来展开脱靶效应和其他安全性评估。”The CCR5 gene mutation has been associated with a 21% increased risk of dying early, according to a paper published in Nature in June, though its unclear why.《大自然》杂志今年6月公开发表的一篇论文称之为,CCR5基因突变与英年早逝风险减少21%有关,不过原因尚能不确切。The team that conducted the study had previously transplanted edited CCR5 human cells into mice, making them resistant to HIV. American scientists have carried out similar experiments on humans, with some success, using an older gene editing tool called zinc finger nuclease.展开这项研究的团队此前曾将CCR5编辑过的人类细胞重制到小鼠体内,使其对艾滋病毒具备抵抗力。

美国科学家早已在人类身上展开了类似于的实验,并获得了一些顺利,他们用于了一种更加古老的被称作锌指核酸酶技术的基因编辑工具。China has invested heavily in gene-editing technology, making biotech one the priorities of its Five-Year Plan announced in 2016. The central government has bankrolled research into a number of world firsts, including the first use of the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 in humans in 2016 and the first reported use of gene editing technology to modify nonviable human embryos in 2015.中国在基因编辑技术上投放巨资,将生物技术列入2016年宣告的五年规划(十三五规划)的重点之一。中国政府资助了多项可谓世界“第一”的研究,还包括2016年首次在人类身上用于基因编辑工具CRISPR-Cas9,以及2015年首次用于基因编辑技术改动无法存活的人类胚胎。Deng Hongkui remains a strong believer in CRISPR-Cas9. He thinks it could bring a new dawn to blood-related diseases such as AIDS, sickle anemia, hemophilia and beta thalassemia and that, thanks to this new technology, the goal of a functional cure for AIDS is getting closer and closer.邓宏魁依然是基因编辑工具CRISPR-Cas9的忠诚信徒。





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